Catalonian
Call For Paper Advertisement

An Exordium

The ‘numeronym 1-O’ also known as the referendum of “1st October” held in Catalonia as stirred an unprecedented political uncertainty in Spain and Catalonia. Catalonia was an autonomous region of Spain which was granted this status after the fall of the dictatorial regime of General Francisco Franco and re-institution of Constitutional Monarchy in 1978. Catalonia’s government follows the Generalitat institutional system i.e. the autonomous system of government, which consists of Presidency of the Generalitat, the Government and other institutions established in the Statute of Autonomy (known as the “Estatut”). The Parliament is elected democratically, which consists of a single chamber of 135 members.

Every year, it is estimated that Catalonia racks up 10 billion euros ($12 billion) more in taxes to Madrid and in return receives merely 5 percent of regional economic output, according to data provided by the Spanish Treasury. When compared to the Spain’s poorest region, Andalusia is allotted almost 8 billion euros more than it contributes. Catalonia ranks 9th on the list of the most widely spoken languages in Europe. However, it is not on the EU’s list of 24 official languages. Due to the pervasive emotion of economic oppression and negligence among the majority of Catalans, there was a demand for formation of a separate nation. The demand for secession was so strongly felt by the majority of the Catalans that, in 2015, a coalition regional government constituting of pro-separatist parties, which promised that independence was brought to power. It is headed by Carles Puigdemon, the regional premiere of Catalonia. Thus, the Catalan Parliament held an independence referendum on 1st October 2017.

The Constitutionality of the Referendum

Call For Paper Advertisement

A referendum in principle is instrumental in expressing views of the people. It empowers the electorate to voice their opinion in decision making and policy determination of their country by providing them with direct participation. Referendums have been classified into various categories like mandatory-optional, binding-advisory, government-controlled referendums, constitutionally required referendums, and referendums by popular petitions & popular initiatives.

Spain has held a referendum to decide on its EU membership in the mid-1980’s. However, the referendum held on 1st October 2017 did not get recognition by the Spanish Parliament. The main contentions voiced by Madrid were that the Spanish Constitution in its Article 1 and 2 enshrines the principles of national sovereignty, which resides in the Spanish people as a whole, and of national unity, which in line with the fundamental precepts of advanced democracies. The Constitution does not permit break-up of Spain. Additionally, the referendum was held to be in violation of the Constitution as the right to decide the sovereignty of the nation resides with all the citizens of Spain alike and this referendum permits “Catalan-only” to decide for the Independence of Catalonia from Spain. Spain’s Constitutional Court also decided in favour of the Spanish Government, arguing that the referendum was in contravention of the country’s 1978 constitution which bars the break-up the country.

The Highhanded Approach of Spanish Government

The Spanish Government deployed police to prevent the independence vote on October 1, with orders to seize any polling booths that were set up. It gave out a statement condemning the attitude of Catalan Government, stating that “in recent weeks, the secessionist defiance promoted by certain institutions in Catalonia has escalated in a way that underscores its authoritarian, arbitrary and anti-democratic nature, and its intention to openly contravene the prevailing legal framework.” In a raid on a warehouse in Barcelona prior to the day of the referendum, police confiscated around 1.3 million leaflets and other campaign materials.

Despite opposition and uncertainty about the effectiveness of the referendum, more than 2 million Catalans supported it. The approach adopted by the Spanish Government was in line with an autocratic ruler. Firstly, the Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy addressed Catalans as fools for taking part in an illegal referendum. Subsequently, the national police and Guardia Civil – a military force charged with police duties – were sent into Catalonia in large numbers to prevent the referendum from materializing. They violently attacked the voters at the polling stations- tossing them across staircases, seizing the voting machines, indiscriminately firing previously banned rubber bullets on the crowd gathered outside the polling stations. The standoff injured at least 893 civilians and 431 police officers on October 1. All the aids and helpers in the referendum face a risk of being fined up to 300,000 euros.

The attempt by the Spanish Government. to stop people from casting their vote seems to have backfired. Protesters said the violent police crackdown against the ballot had energized the secessionist camp. Opinion polls conducted before the vote suggested only a minority of around 40 percent of residents in the region back independence although a majority want a referendum to be held. The discontentment among the masses grew as Government denied them the basic democratic right to vote and exercise the autonomy granted and guaranteed in the Constitution. Thus, the referendum witnessed a landslide victory in the favor of Independence for Catalonia.

 

Catalonia’s regional government spokesman Jordi Turull stated that 2.26 million people had cast their votes on Sunday with 90 percent of those voting in favor of Catalonia, a wealthy region in north-east Spain, to gain independence. Voter turnout was low at around 42 percent.

The Spanish Government did issue an apology for the violence inflicted on the gathering but not without a pinch of salt. Spanish Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis issued an apology in the following words, “If there was any use of force by police, in any way, it was because they were prevented from doing what they were asked to do”. The use of violence was condemned even by neutral spectators like the European Union. Its official statement, “Violence can never be an instrument in politics” was followed by a warning that if Catalonia’s secession from Spain is successful, “it would find itself outside of the European Union.”

Catalonian Referendum

What to Expect Next?

According to the Catalan government, referendum results indicate that 90% of people cast their ballots in favor of independence. A total of 2.26 million Catalans – 42% of the region’s 5.3 million eligible voters voted for Independence of Catalonia. If Catalonia unilaterally declares independence, Mariano Rajoy, the Prime Minister of Spain is expected to invoke Article 155 of the Spanish constitution. The article, which has never been used, allows the Spanish government to step in and take control of an autonomous region if it “does not fulfill the obligations imposed upon it by the constitution or other laws, or acts in a way that is seriously prejudicial to the general interest of Spain”.

Catalonian Referendum

The Referendum and FC Barcelona – “mès que un club”

This football club has always been safe havens for Catalonia’s Nationalism spirit. The club embodies its motto- ‘mès que un club’ (literal translation, more than a club) in all sense. The club has not hesitated from expressing their political beliefs in the past and this referendum is no exception.

During the dictatorial regime of General Francisco Francolanguage, culture and Catalan flag were all banned. However, it was in the FC Barcelona stadium, ‘Camp Nou’, that people were free to express their love for Catalan Nationalism. They waved the banned Catalan flag and sing songs in their native language.  The stadium still witnesses chanting and waving of Catalan flag, called ‘Senyeras’, when the clock hits 17:14. It holds historical significance for Catalonia, it was on Sept. 11, 1714, that Catalonia became a part of Spain after its defeat in War of Succession.

Catalonian Referendum

Currently, FC Barcelona plays in the Spain’s La Liga League. However, it will no longer be permitted to be a part of the league if Catalonia gains independence from Spain. The matter is of concern as the team currently sits top of the league rankings and has won 24 La Liga titles. The future of the club in La Liga League is surrounded by uncertainty.

Conclusion

Along with wrangling over the violation of court orders, rule of law and threat of sovereignty, it is time to be concerned with the prime stakeholders of the entire scenario. The citizens of Catalonia. The result of this referendum has installed a stalemate, which is creating an uncertainty for the citizens. The fact that people are turning up in large numbers for voting in the referendum despite being attacked and warned that, doing so will be a criminal offense is indicative that this kind of an unflinching vigor is a product of an urge to set free the shackles of oppression.

Nevertheless, even if the Spanish government does not approve of it, this referendum will form a part of “soft” state building. Symbolic votes for independence functions act as part of mass mobilization to bolster the internal legitimacy. This type of symbolic mobilization adds to the pressure building mechanism.

Call For Paper Advertisement

88 COMMENTS

  1. canada goose kids

    My buddy and I were just talking over this specific issue, jane is continually seeking to prove me incorrect! I am going to show her this particular blog post and additionally rub it in a little!

  2. reebok factory outlet near me

    What exactly is occurring within all these towards the world is absolutely terrible. I hope the issues prefer that around Egypt usually are resolved quickly. They need to get for just a pacific strategy to the condition and get initiative that this mil…

  3. cheap barbour sale

    I was just chatting with my coworker about this today at Outback steak house. Don’t remember how in the world we landed on the topic in actuality, they brought it up. I do recall eating a excellent fruit salad with cranberries on it. I digress

  4. Best puma Online

    There are some interesting closing dates on this article however I don’t know if I see all of them center to heart. There is some validity but I will take hold opinion until I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we would like extra! Added…

  5. hot puma sale

    Thanks for taking the time to talk about this, I feel fervently about this and I take pleasure in learning about this topic. Please, as you gain information, please update this blog with more information. I have found it very useful.

  6. puma 90 off

    Great post. I used to be checking constantly to this weblog & Im very impressed! Extremely educational information, especially the 4th sentences. I really want such info. I was looking for this particular information for many days. Thanks and best…

  7. new balance 70 off

    This blog appears to recieve a large ammount of visitors. How do you promote it? It gives a nice individual twist on things. I guess having something real or substantial to post about is the most important factor.

  8. Pierre Hardy on sale

    Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely return.

  9. reebok crossfit store

    hi you guys, I was just checkin out this blog and I really love the basis of the article, and have nothing to do, so if anyone wants to have an engaging chat about it, please contact me on facebook, my name is jack smith

  10. nfl store online

    My bro bookmarked this webpage for me and I have been reading through it for the past couple hrs. This is really going to benefit me and my friends for our class project. By the way, I enjoy the way you write.

  11. Best puma Outlet

    I carry on listening to the reports talk about getting boundless online grant applications so I have been looking around for the best site to get one. Could you advise me please, where could i find some?

  12. coach store locations

    jobobqidblcvametllvvnfgn lenen zonder bkr fffdeldlfa gkvhmskdkbtftkrbefnhsadvi lenen zonder bkr toetsing glllffggk lkgvmhvaafsflkhmhjovea lenen fgjebajelj kcptqfkakdrkiahdkahkgq hypotheek deejeefjde spcnoahiijrphmmdfviaqmgg migraine edjfejjfd

  13. fjallraven sale

    Aw, this was a really quality post. In theory Id like to write like this too taking time and real effort to make a good article but what can I say I procrastinate alot and never seem to get something done.

  14. reebok 90 off

    We extremely appreciate your blog post. You can find so many means we could put it to good use with minimum effort with time and resources. Thank you really for helping make this post respond to many queries we have got before now.

  15. Authentic asics store

    I really enjoy this template youve got going on on your internet site. What is the name of the template by the way? I was thinking of using this style for the website I am going to put together for my class project.

  16. mammut store locator

    First Off, let me commend your clearness on this subject. I am not an expert on this subject, but after reading your article, my understanding has developed substantially. Please allow me to grab your rss feed to stay in touch with any forthcoming upda…

  17. patagonia christmas sale

    kinda like what you published actually. it just is not that easy to find even remotely good stuff to read (you know READ! and not just browsing through it like some uniterested and flesh eating zombie before moving on), so cheers man for not wasting my…

  18. arcteryx thorium sale

    I cherished what you have got performed here. The format is stylish, your written material elegant. Nonetheless, you’ve got obtained an edginess to what you’ll be providing the next. Ill unquestionably come back once again but once again for your sup…

  19. cheap ugg boots online

    We extremely appreciate your blog post. You can find so many means we could put it to good use with minimum effort with time and resources. Thank you really for helping make this post respond to many queries we have got before now.

  20. emu ugg boots sale

    It is not hard to summise when looking over the rest of your website comments that this is a subject which brings out many opinions about this subject. I suppose it is lovely to meet fellow opinionated people! Just one more thing I bookmarked this post…

  21. parajumpers store

    this is a greatly compelling dispatch, tender thanks you for the benefit of the information. Pitiful my english is not the very best. do you remember if it is practicable to turn this to the spanish language. that would be very helpfull.

  22. arcteryx sabre sale

    I believed it was heading to become some boring outdated publish, but it really compensated for my time. Ill post a link to this page on my blog. I am certain my guests will come across that extremely helpful.

  23. goose clothing online

    Thnx so much for this! I havent been this thrilled by a blog post for a long time! You have got it, whatever that means in blogging. Anyway, Youre definitely somebody that has something to say that people should hear. Keep up the outstanding work. Keep…

  24. mens keen sandals sale

    I really enjoy this template youve got going on on your web page. What is the name of the theme by the way? I was thinking of using this style for the web site I am going to build for my class room project.

  25. cheap ecco shoes online

    This is some good quality stuff. It took me some time to unearth this site but it was worth the time. I noticed this post was buried in google and not the first spot. This internet site has a ton of high-quality stuff and it does not deserve to be burr…

  26. north face sale online

    Considerably, this post is really the sweetest on this notable topic. I harmonise with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your incoming updates. Saying thanks will not just be sufficient, for the phenomenal clarity in your writing.

  27. womens barbour sale

    First of all, allow my family recognize a persons command during this matter. Even though this is certainly brand new , nevertheless soon after registering your site, this intellect has exploded extensively. Allow all of us to take hold of ones rss to…

  28. buy birkenstock online

    Wow, that was a great read through. Finally, somebody who really thinks and is familiar with what they are writing about. Quite hard to find these days, especially on the internet. I saved your blog and will make sure to keep coming back here if this i…

  29. cavalli online store

    *There are certainly a lot of details like that to take into consideration. That is an excellent point to bring up. I offer the thoughts above as general inspiration but clearly you will find questions like the one you bring up where the most critical…

  30. merrell shoes online

    There are some interesting points in time in this article but I don’t know if I see all of them center to heart. There is some validity but I will take hold opinion until I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we want more! Added to FeedBur…

  31. ugg online store

    Hey there! Really good posting! I happen to be a ordinary visitor to your site (somewhat more like addict :P) of this website sadly I had a problem. Im just not at all positive whether it is the right site to question, but youve got no spam comments. I…

  32. buy nfl jerseys cheap online

    Wow actually a huge post. I like this.I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch because I found it for him. Overall, Lots of great information and inspiration, both of which we all need…

  33. christian louboutin outlet chicago

    Congratulations on having one of the most sophisticated blogs Ive come across in some time! Its just incredible how very much you can take away from anything simply because of how visually beautiful its. Youve put together a terrific weblog space great…

  34. mbt outlet online

    Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often

  35. sergio rossi logo

    Congratulations on having one of the most sophisticated blogs Ive arrive across in some time! Its just incredible how considerably you can take away from a thing simply because of how visually beautiful its. Youve put together a good weblog space great…

  36. Lafuma outlet

    Thank you for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbour were preparing to do some research about that. We received a superior book on that matter from our local library and most books exactly where not as influensive as your information. Im quite gl…

  37. michael kors shoes online

    Damn, awesome website. I actually came across this on Bing, and I am happy I did. I will definately be coming back here more often. Wish I could add to the posts here and bring a bit more to the table, but am just absorbing as much info as I can at the…

Leave a Reply