The Islamic Republic of Iran made its National Nuclear Plan back in the 1984 by the current supreme leader, Khamenei who was the president back then and the country was fighting a war with Iraq.Since then, the plan of Iran has always been watched upon. It is felt by many that nuclear power in the hands of Iran would pose a danger towards the world. To quote such a perception came towards Iran by the Iranian Revolution. Otherwise, the base of the programme was laid down in 1957 with the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran instituting the Tehran Nuclear research Centre. It had also signed and ratified the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.Due to large source of petroleum, US and European countries such as Sweden, Francewas interested in trade with it. With the help of USA, upto 23 stations were to be stationed by 2000. The Iranian Revolution changed the game for the Republic and invited end to the international nuclear cooperation. The United States’ pressure on the IAEA and China affected the help which was given by these two. After that, consistently Iran had failed to comply with the Safeguards Agreement which obliged it to inform IAEA about material and its use. Therefore no conclusion was able to be drawn on the nature of programme. Thereafter, the United Nations had passed continuous Resolutions against Iran implementing sanctions on the same.
With the series of negotiations coming up back from 2006 between Iran and P5+1to 2nd April 2015 resulted in an agreement on a framework to deal with the nuclear activities in the country. The intent of this was to give back the right of nuclear research to Iran for using it for peaceful purposes and recognizing the ratification of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Agreement is scheduled to be ready by 30th June of 2015 which would resume the supply of fuel and technical assistance to Iran for peaceful usage. According to the Joint Statement made in Laussane, the European Union will lift the nuclear-related economic and financial sanction with the United States complying for the same too. Other UN mandates have also to be lifted by a new resolution.
According to the new Parameters for a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Regarding the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Nuclear Program, Iran has agreed to reduced enrichment levels to 3.67% and also would maintain storage of 300 kilograms against 10,000 kilograms, both for a timeframe of 15 years. This would ensure the usage of nuclear facilities to peaceful purposes such as nuclear power generation, as at least enrichment of 90 per cent is required for nuclear warheads. It has also agreed for conversion of its nuclear enrichment site to a center for nuclear physics and technology research at Fordow. One of the issue in the talks was related to the usage of Arak reactor which is capable of producing weapon grade plutonium. So, the foreign minister of Iran, Mohammad JavadZarif, on behalf of the country has agreed to redesign the reactor and not to build any kind of heavy water reactor for the same time. This again ensures that Iran would be restricted to the peaceful usage if technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency has also be assured by the delegation that it would have access to its nuclear programme, and at the same in the moment of suspicion can investigate the matter. The other part of the deal, which is of relieving from sanctions, would be done after the nod by IAEA, the UN watchdog on nuclear activities is given.
The deal has been given strong opposition by the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The leader expressed has regularly expressed his conservation in regards to the talks going between P5 and the European Union. According to him, such deal will act towards legitimizing the malicious intent of Iran and would support the terrorist activities sponsored by the nation. Lifting up the economic sanctions on Iran would give away the money into the wrong hands. But, this feels utterly fabricated. The conditions of the deal that are put up on Iran are such that it would have to maintain transparency of its nuclear programme at least till 15 year. The sanctions by the United States and European Union would be lifted after 30th June, if Iran complies with its part.
The efforts by the Islamic Republic were seen since its economy was greatly affected by the economic sanctions. The basic amenities for trade have been lacking in the country as the international markets excluded the Iranian banking system to the great extent. Because of the less number of countries trading with the country, industrial units became out dated and lacked major spare parts. Petroleum which is a major product of the economy for the country, its prices were cut by half, resulting in depreciating currency. Despite all these factors and near to zero economic growth, Iran still has its place in the list of world’s top 20 economies today. Therefore, this lifting of economic sanctions would unleash the economy and its growth can be recorded at a higher pace in a few years.
This nuclear is great step forward towards the attainment of international peace. The programme, Atoms for Peace, has been an important aspect for the deal to conclude. The 15 years of rigorous negotiations with the world powers has earned for Iran a fair deal. If it is able to comply with it within a month and half, it would surely be positively affected.